CLASS 12 REDUCED SYLLABUS

ONLY FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2020 - 21

தமிழ்

இயல் 1

  • செய்யுள் - இளந்தமிழே.

  • உரைநடை - தமிழ் மொழியின் நடை அழகியல்.

  • செய்யுள் - தன்னேர் இலாத தமிழ்.

  • துணைப்பாடம் - தம்பி நெல்லையப்பருக்கு.

  • இலக்கணம் - தமிழாய் எழுதுவோம்.

இயல் 2

  • செய்யுள் - பிறகொருநாள் கோடை.

  • இலக்கணம் - நால்வகைப் பொருத்தங்கள்.

இயல் 3

  • உரைநடை - தமிழர் குடும்பமுறை.

  • செய்யுள் - விருந்தினர் இல்லம், கம்பராமாயணம்.

  • துணைப்பாடம் - உரிமைத்தாகம்.

  • இலக்கணம் - பொருள் மயக்கம்.

  • வாழ்வியல் - திருக்குறள்.

இயல் 4

  • உரைநடை-பண்டைய காலத்துப் பள்ளிக்கூடங்கள்.

  • செய்யுள் - இதில் வெற்றிபெற.

  • இலக்கணம் - பா இயற்றப் பழகலாம்.

இயல் 5

  • செய்யுள் - தெய்வமணிமாலை, தேவாரம்.

  • துணைப்பாடம் - தலைக்குளம்.

இயல் 6

  • செய்யுள் - சிலப்பதிகாரம்.

  • துணைப்பாடம் - நடிகர்திலகம்.

  • வாழ்வியல் - திருக்குறள்.

இயல் 7

  • உரைநடை - இலக்கியத்தில் மேலாண்மை.

  • செய்யுள் - புறநானூறு.

  • துணைப்பாடம் - சங்ககாலக் கல்வெட்டும் என் நினைவுகளும்.

இயல் 8

  • செய்யுள் - இரட்சணிய யாத்திரிகம்.

ENGLISH

Unit 1

  • Prose - Two Gentlemen of Verona.

  • Supplementary - God Sees the Truth but Waits.

  • Grammar - Tenses, Modal Auxiliaries, Reported Speech.

Unit 2

  • Poem - Our Casuarina Tree.

  • Grammar - Prepositions, Prepositional phrases, Conjunctions, Connectives or Linkers.

Unit 3

  • Prose - In Celebration of Being Alive.

  • Poem - All the World's a Stage.

  • Grammar - Active and Passive Voice, Interrogatives.

Unit 4

  • Poem - Ulysses

  • Supplementary - The Midnight Visitor.

  • Grammar - Kinds of Sentences, Conditionals.

Unit 5

  • Prose - Tech Bloomers.

  • Poem - The Secret of the Machines.

  • Grammar - Pronouns, Reported speech.

Unit 6

  • Prose - The Last Lesson.

  • Grammar - Subject / Verb, Agreement, Non Finites.

Unit 7

  • Grammar - Simple, Complex and Compound.

MATH

Unit 1: Applications of Matrices and Determinants.

  • 1.1 Introduction.

  • 1.2 Inverse of a Non-Singular Square Matrix.

  • 1.2.1 Adjoint of a square Matrix.

  • 1.2.2 Definition of inverse matrix of a square matrix.

  • 1.2.3 Properties of inverses of matrices.

  • 1.2.4 Application of matrices to Geometry.

  • 1.3 Elementary Transformations of a Matrix.

  • 1.3.1 Elementary row and column operations.

  • 1.3.2 Row-Echelon form.

  • 1.3.3 Rank of a Matrix.

  • 1.4 Applications of Matrices: Solving System of Linear Equations.

  • 1.4.1 Formation of a System of Linear Equations.

  • 1.4.2 System of Linear Equations in Matrix Form.

  • 1.4.3 Solution to a System of Linear equations.

(i) Matrix Inversion Method.

(ii) Cramer's Rule.

(iii) Gaussian Elimination Method.

(*All properties without proof)


Unit 2: Complex Numbers

  • 2.1 Introduction to Complex Numbers.

  • 2.1.1 Powers of imaginary unit.

  • 2.2 Complex Numbers.

  • 2.2.1 Rectangular form.

  • 2.2.2 Argand plane.

  • 2.2.3 Algebraic operations on complex number.

  • 2.3 Basic Algebraic Properties of Complex Numbers.

  • 2.3.1 Properties of complex numbers.

  • 2.4 Conjugate of a Complex Number.

  • 2.4.1 Geometrical representation of conjugate of a complex number.

  • 2.4.2 Properties of Complex Conjugates.

  • 2.5 Modulus of a Complex Number.

  • 2.5.1 Properties of Modulus of a complex number.

  • 2.5.2 Square roots of a complex number.

  • 2.6 Geometry and Locus of Complex Numbers.

(*All properties without proof)


Unit 3: Theory of Equations

  • 3.1 Introduction.

  • 3.2 Basics of Polynomial Equations.

  • 3.2.1 Different types of Polynomial Equations.

  • 3.2.2 Quadratic Equations.

  • 3.3 Vieta's Formulae and Formation of Polynomial Equations.

  • 3.3.1 Vieta's formula for Quadratic Equations.

  • 3.3.2 Vieta's formula for Polynomial Equations.

(a) The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra.

(b) Vieta's Formula.

(i) Vieta's Formula for Polynomial equation of degree 3.

(c) Formation of Polynomial Equations with given Roots.

  • 3.4 Nature of Roots and Nature of Coefficients of Polynomial Equations.

  • 3.4.1 Imaginary Roots.

  • 3.4.2 Irrational Roots.

  • 3.4.3 Rational Roots.

  • 3.6 Roots of Higher Degree Polynomial Equations.

  • 3.7 Polynomials with Additional Information.

  • 3.7.1 Imaginary or Surds Roots.

  • 3.7.2 Polynomial equations with Even Powers Only.

  • 3.7.3 Zero Sum of all Coefficients.

  • 3.7.4 Equal Sums of Coefficients of Odd and Even Powers.

  • 3.8 Polynomial Equations with no additional information.

  • 3.8.2 Reciprocal Equations.

  • 3.9 Descartes Rule.

  • 3.9.1 Statement of Descartes Rule.

  • 3.9.2 Attainment of bounds.

(*All properties without proof)


Unit 4: Inverse Trigonometric Functions

  • 4.1 Introduction.

  • 4.2 Some Fundamental Concepts.

  • 4.2.1 Domain and Range of trigonometric functions.

  • 4.2.2 Graphs of functions.

  • 4.2.3 Amplitude and Period of a graph.

  • 4.2.4 Inverse functions.

  • 4.2.5 Graphs of inverse functions.

  • 4.3 Sine Function and Inverse Sine Function.

  • 4.3.2 Properties of the sine function.

  • 4.3.3 The inverse sine function and its properties.

  • 4.4 The Cosine Function and Inverse Cosine Function.

  • 4.4.2 Properties of the cosine function.

  • 4.4.3 The inverse cosine function and its properties.

  • 4.5 The Tangent Function and the Inverse Tangent Function.

  • 4.5.2 Properties of the tangent function.

  • 4.5.3 The inverse tangent function and its properties.

  • 4.6 The Cosecant Function and the Inverse Cosecant Function.

  • 4.6.2 The inverse cosecant function.

  • 4.7 The Secant Function and Inverse Secant Function.

  • 4.7.2 Inverse secant function.

  • 4.8 The Cotangent Function and the Inverse Cotangent Function.

  • 4.8.2 Inverse cotangent function.

  • 4.9 Principal Value of Inverse Trigonometric Functions.

( All properties without proof)


Unit 5: Two Dimensional Analytical Geometry-II

  • 5.1 Introduction. (Theorem 5.1-5.5 without proof)

  • 5.2 Circle.

  • 5.2.1 Equation of a circle in standard form.

  • 5.2.2 Equations of tangent and normal at a point P on a given circle. (without proof)

  • 5.2.3 Condition for the line y= mx + c to be a tangent to the circle x2 + y2 = a2 and finding the point of contact. (without proof)

  • 5.3 Conics.

  • 5.3.1 The general equation of a Conic.

  • 5.3.2 Parabola.

  • 5.3.3 Ellipse. (Theorem 5.3.3-without proof)

  • 5.3.4 Hyperbola. (Theorem 5.3.4-without proof)

  • 5.4 Conic Sections.

  • 5.4.1 Geometric description of conic section.

  • 5.4.2 Degenerate Forms.

  • 5.5 Parametric form of Conics.

  • 5.5.1 Parametric equations.

  • 5.6 Tangents and Normals to Conics.

  • 5.6.1 Equation of tangent and normal to the parabola y2 = 4ax. (without proof)

  • 5.6.2 Equations of tangent and normal to Ellipse and Hyperbola. (without proof)

  • 5.6.3 Condition for the line y= mx + c to be a tangent to the conic sections. (without proof)

  • 5.7 Real life Applications of Conics.

  • 5.7.1 Parabola.

  • 5.7.2 Ellipse.

  • 5.7.3 Hyperbola.

  • 5.7.4 Reflective property of parabola.

  • 5.7.5 Reflective property of Ellipse.

(*All properties without proof)


Unit 6: Applications of Vector Algebra

  • 6.1 Introduction (Theorems 6.1-6.23-without proof).

  • 6.2 Geometric Introduction to Vectors.

  • 6.3 Scalar Product and Vector Product.

  • 6.3.1 Geometrical interpretation.

  • 6.3.2 Application of dot and cross products in plane Trigonometry.

  • 6.3.3 Application of dot and cross products in Geometry.

  • 6.3.4 Application of dot and cross product in Physics.

  • 6.4 Scalar triple product.

  • 6.4.1 Properties of the scalar triple product.

  • 6.5 Vector triple product.

  • 6.6 Jacobi's Identity and Lagrange's Identity.

  • 6.7 Application of Vectors to 3D Geometry.

  • 6.7.1 Different forms of equation of a straight line.

  • 6.7.2 A point on the straight line and the direction of the straight line are given.

  • 6.7.3 Straight Line passing through two given points.

  • 6.7.4 Angle between two straight lines.

  • 6.7.5 Point of intersection of two straight lines.

  • 6.7.6 Shortest distance between two straight lines.

  • 6.8 Different forms of Equation of a plane.

  • 6.8.1 Equation of a plane when a normal to the plane and the distance of the plane from the origin are given.

  • 6.8.2 Equation of a plane perpendicular to a vector and passing through a given point.

  • 6.8.3 Intercept form of the equation of a plane.

  • 6.8.4 Equation of a plane passing through three given non-collinear points.

  • 6.8.5 Equation of a plane passing through a given point and parallel to two given non-parallel vectors.

  • 6.8.6 Equation of a plane passing through two given distinct points and is parallel to a non-zero vector.

  • 6.8.7 Condition for a line to lie in a plane.

  • 6.8.8 Condition for coplanarity of two lines.

  • 6.8.10 Angle between two planes.

  • 6.8.11 Angle between a line and a plane.

  • 6.8.12 Distance of a point from a plane.

  • 6.8.13 Distance between two parallel planes.

(*All properties without proof)

Unit 7: Applications of Differential Calculus

  • 7.1.0 Introduction.

  • 7.1.1 Early Developments.

  • 7.2.0 Meaning of Derivatives.

  • 7.2.1 Derivative as slope.

  • 7.2.2 Derivative as rate of change.

  • 7.2.3 Related rates.

  • 7.2.4 Equations of Tangent and Normal.

  • 7.2.5 Angle between two curves.

  • 7.5.0 Indeterminate Forms.

  • 7.5.1 A Limit Process.

  • 7.5.2 The l'Hopital's Rule.

  • 7.5.3 Indeterminate forms.

  • 7.6.0 Applications of First Derivative.

  • 7.6.1 Monotonicity of functions.

  • 7.6.2 Absolute maxima and minima.

  • 7.6.3 Relative Extrema on an Interval.

  • 7.6.4 Extrema using First Derivative Test.

  • 7.7.0 Applications of Second Derivative.

  • 7.7.1 Concavity, Convexity, and Points of Inflection.

  • 7.7.2 Extrema using Second Derivative Test.

  • 7.8 Applications in Optimization.

(*All properties without proof)

Unit 8: Differentials and Partial Derivatives

  • 8.1 Introduction.

  • 8.2 Linear Approximation and Differentials.

  • 8.2.2 Errors: Absolute Error, Relative Error, and Percentage Error.

  • 8.2.3 Differentials.

(*All properties without proof)

Unit 9: Applications of integration.

  • 9.1. Introduction.

  • 9.3 Fundamental Theorems of Integral Calculus and their Applications.

  • 9.5 Improper Integrals.

  • 9.6 Reduction Formulae.

  • 9.7 Gamma Integral.

  • 9.8 Evaluation of Bounded Plane Area by Integration.

  • 9.8.1 Area of the region bounded by a curve, x - axis and the lines x = a and x = b.

  • 9.8.2 Area of the region bounded by a curve, y- axis and the lines y= c and y= d.

  • 9.8.3 Area of the region bounded between two curves.

(*All properties without proof)

Unit 10: Ordinary Differential Equations

  • 10.1 Introduction.

  • 10.2 Differential Equation, Order, and Degree.

  • 10.4 Formation of Differential Equations.

  • 10.4.1 Formation of Differential equations from Physical Situations.

  • 10.4.2 Formation of Differential Equations from Geometrical Problems.

  • 10.5 Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations.

  • 10.6 Solution of First Order and First Degree Differential Equations.

  • 10.6.1 Variables Separable Method.

  • 10.6.3 Homogeneous Form or Homogeneous Differential Equation.

  • 10.7 First Order Linear Differential Equations.

  • 10.8 Applications of First Order Ordinary Differential Equations.

  • 10.8.1 Population growth.

  • 10.8.2 Radioactive decay.

  • 10.8.3 Newton's Law of cooling/warming.

  • 10.8.4 Mixture problems.

Unit11: Probability Distributions

  • 11.1 Introduction.

  • 11.2 Random Variable.

  • 11.3 Types of Random Variable.

  • 11.3.1 Discrete random variables.

  • 11.3.2 Probability Mass Function.

  • 11.3.3 Cumulative Distribution Function or Distribution Function.

  • 11.3.4 Cumulative Distribution Function from Probability Mass function.

  • 11.3.5 Probability Mass Function from Cumulative Distribution Function.

  • 11.4.0 Continuous Distributions.

  • 11.4.1 The definition of continuous random variable.

  • 11.4.2 Probability density function.

  • 11.4.3 Distribution function. (Cumulative distribution function)

  • 11.4.4 Distribution function from Probability density function.

  • 11.4.5 Probability density function from Probability distribution function.

(*All properties without proof)

Unit 12: Discrete Mathematics

  • 12.1 Introduction.

  • 12.2 Binary Operations.

  • 12.2.1 Definitions.

  • 12.2.2 Some more properties of a binary operation.

  • 12.2.3 Some binary operations on Boolean Matrices.

  • 12.2.4 Modular Arithmetic.

  • 12.3 Mathematical Logic.

  • 12.3.1 Statement and its truth value.

  • 12.3.2 Compound Statements, Logical Connectives, and Truth Tables.

  • 12.3.3 Tautology, Contradiction, and Contingency.

  • 12.3.4 Duality.

  • 12.3.5 Logical Equivalence.

(*All properties without proof)

(*All examples and exercise problems for the content mentioned above)

PHYSICS

Unit 1: Electrostatics

  • 1.1 Introduction.

  • 1.1.1 Historical background of electric charges.

  • 1.1.2 Basic Properties of charges.

  • 1.2 Coulomb's law.

  • 1.2.1 Super position principle.

  • 1.3.1 Electric Field.

  • 1.3.2 Electric field due to the system of point charges.

  • 1.4.1 Electric dipole.

  • 1.4.2 Electric Field due to a dipole.

  • 1.4.3 Torque experienced by an electric dipole in the uniform electric field.

  • 1.5 Electrostatic potential and potential energy.

  • 1.5.1 Electrostatic Potential energy & Electro static Potential.

  • 1.5.2 Electric Potential due to a point charge.

  • 1.5.3 Electro static Potential at a point due to an electric dipole.

  • 1.5.6 Electro static potential energy for collection of point charges.

  • 1.5.7 Electro static potential energy of a dipole in a uniform electric field.

  • 1.6.1 Electric Flux.

  • 1.6.2 Electric flux for closed surfaces.

  • 1.6.3 Gauss Law.

  • 1.6.4 Applications of Gauss Law.

  • 1.8.1 Capacitors.

  • 1.8.2 Energy stored in the capacitor.

  • 1.8.3 Application of capacitors.

  • 1.8.4 Effect of dielectrics in capacitors.

  • 1.8.5 Capacitors in series and parallel.

  • 1.9.1 Distribution of charges in a conductor .

  • 1.9.2 Action of points or corona discharge.

  • 1.9.4 Vande graff Generator.

Unit 2: Current Electricity

  • 2.1 Electric Current.

  • 2.1.1 Conventional Current .

  • 2.1.2 Drift Velocity.

  • 2.1.3 Microscopic model of current.

  • 2.2 Ohm's Law.

  • 2.2.1 Resistivity.

  • 2.2.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel.

  • 2.2.3 Colour code for carbon resistors.

  • 2.2.4 Temperature dependence of resistivity.

  • 2.3 Energy and power in electrical circuits.

  • 2.4.1 Electromotive force and internal resistance.

  • 2.4.2 Determination of internal resistance.

  • 2.4.3 Cells in series.

  • 2.4.4 Cells in Parallel.

  • 2.5.1 Kirchhoff's First rule .

  • 2.5.2 Kirchhoff's Second rule .

  • 2.5.3 Wheatstone's bridge.

  • 2.5.4 Metre bridge.

  • 2.5.7 Measurement of internal resistance of cell by Potentiometer.

  • 2.7 Thermo electric current.

  • 2.7.1 Seebeck effect.

  • 2.7.2 Peltier Effect.

  • 2.7.3 Thomson effect.

Unit 3: Magnetism and magnetic effects of electric current.

  • 3.1 Introduction.

  • 3.1.2 Basic properties of magnets.

  • 3.2 Coulomb's inverse square law of magnetism.

  • 3.8 Biot - Savart law.

  • 3.8.1 Definition and explanation of Biot - Savart law.

  • 3.8.2 Magnetic field due to long straight conductor carrying current.

  • 3.8.3 Magnetic field produced along the axis of the current carrying circular coil.

  • 3.8.5 Current loop as a magnetic dipole.

  • 3.9 Ampere Circuital law.

  • 3.9.1 Ampere's circuital law.

  • 3.9.2 Magnetic field due to the current carrying wire of infinite length using Ampere's law.

  • 3.9.3 Magnetic field due to a long current carrying solenoid.

  • 3.10 Lorentz force.

  • 3.10.1 Force on a moving charge in a magnetic field.

  • 3.10.2 Motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field.

  • 3.10.3 Motion of a charged particle under crossed electric and magnetic field. (velocity selector)

  • 3.10.5 Force on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field.

  • 3.10.6 Force between two long parallel current carrying conductors.

  • 3.11.2 Moving coil galvanometer.

Unit 4: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating current

  • 4.1Electromagnetic Induction.

  • 4.1.1 Introduction.

  • 4.1.2 Magnetic Flux .(ɸB)

  • 4.1.5 Fleming's right hand rule.

  • 4.1.6 Motional emf from Lorentz force .

  • 4.3 Self-Induction.

  • 4.3.1 Introduction.

  • 4.3.2 Self-inductance of a long solenoid.

  • 4.3.3 Mutual Induction.

  • 4.3.4 Mutual Inductance between two long co-axial solenoids.

  • 4.4Methods of producing induced emf.

  • 4.4.1 Introduction.

  • 4.4.2 Production of induced emf by changing the magnetic field.

  • 4.4.3 Production of induced emf by changing the area of the coil.

  • 4.4.4 Production of induced emf by changing relative orientation of the coil with the magnetic field.

  • 4.6 Transformer.

  • 4.6.1 Construction and working of transformer.

  • 4.6.2 Energy losses in Transformer.

  • 4.6.3 Advantages of AC in long distance power transmission.

  • 4.7 Alternating Current.

  • 4.7.1 Introduction.

  • 4.7.1 Mean or Average value of AC .

  • 4.7.2 RMS value of AC.

  • 4.7.3 AC circuit containing pure resistor.

  • 4.7.4 A Circuit containing pure inductor.

  • 4.7.5 AC circuit containing only a capacitor.

  • 4.7.6 AC circuit containing a resistor, an inductor and a capacitor in series - Series RLC circuit.

  • 4.7.7 Resonance in series RLC circuit.

  • 4.7.8 Q- factor.

  • 4.8 Power in AC circuits.

  • 4.8.1 Introduction of power in AC circuits.

  • 4.8.2 Wattless current.

  • 4.8.3 Power factor.

  • 4.8.4 Advantages and disadvantages of AC over DC.

  • 4.9 Oscillation in LC circuits.

  • 4.9.1 Energy conversion during LC oscillations.

  • 4.9.2 Conservation of energy in LC oscillations.

Unit 5: Electromagnetic waves

  • 5.1Introduction.

  • 5.1.1 Displacement current and Maxwell's correction to Ampere's circuital law.

  • 5.1.3 Maxwell's equations in integral form

  • 5.2Electromagnetic waves.

  • 5.2.1 Production and properties of electromagnetic waves-Hertz experiments.

  • 5.2.3 Electromagnetic spectrum.

  • 5.3 Types of spectrum emission and absorption spectrum Fraunhofer lines.

Unit 6: Ray optics

  • 6.1 Introduction.

  • 6.1.1 Ray optics.

  • 6.1.2 Reflection.

  • 6.1.3 Angle of deviation due to reflection.

  • 6.1.4 Image formed in plane mirror.

  • 6.1.5 Characteristics of the image formed by plane mirror.

  • 6.2 Spherical mirrors.

  • 6.2.1 Paraxial rays and marginal rays.

  • 6.2.2 Relation between f and r.

  • 6.2.5 The mirror equation.

  • 6.2.6 Lateral magnification in spherical mirror.

  • 6.3 Speed of light.

  • 6.3.1 Fizeau's method to determine speed of light.

  • 6.3.3 Refractive index.

  • 6.3.4 Optical path.

  • 6.4 Refraction.

  • 6.4.1 Angle of deviation due to refraction.

  • 6.4.3 Principle of reversibility.

  • 6.4.4 Relative refractive index.

  • 6.4.5 Apparent depth.

  • 6.4.6 Critical angle and total internal reflection.

  • 6.4.8 Refraction in glass slab.

  • 6.5 Refraction at single spherical surface.

  • 6.5.1 Equation for refraction at single spherical surface.

  • 6.6 Thin lens.

  • 6.6.3 Lens makers formula and lens formula.

  • 6.6.4 Lateral magnification in thin lens.

  • 6.6.6 Focal length of lenses in contact.

  • 6.6.7 Silvered lenses.

  • 6.7 Prism.

  • 6.7.1 Angle of deviation produced by a prism.

  • 6.7.2 Angle of minimum deviation.

  • 6.7.3 Refractive index of the material of the prism.

  • 6.7.4 Dispersion of white light through a prism.

  • 6.7.5 Dispersive power.

  • 6.7.6 Scattering of sunlight.

Unit 7: Wave optics

  • 7.1 Theories on light.

  • 7.1.1 Corpuscular theory.

  • 7.1.2 Wave theory.

  • 7.1.3 Electromagnetic wave theory.

  • 7.1.4 Quantum theory.

  • 7.2 Wave nature of light.

  • 7.2.1 wave optics.

  • 7.2.2 Huygens' principle.

  • 7.2.3 Proof for laws of REFLECTION using Huygens principle.

  • 7.2.4 Proof for laws of REFRACTION using Huygens principle

  • 7.3 Interference.

  • 7.3.1 Phase difference and path difference.

  • 7.3.2 Coherent Sources.

  • 7.3.3 Double slit as coherent source.

  • 7.3.4 Young's double slit experiment.

  • 7.3.5 Interference in white light. (polychromatic light)

  • 7.3.6 Interference in thin films.

  • 7.4 Diffraction.

  • 7.4.2 Diffraction in single slit.

  • 7.4.4 Fresnel's distance.

  • 7.4.5 Difference between interference and diffraction.

  • 7.4.9 Resolution.

  • 7.5.3.1 Polariser and analyser.

  • 7.5.3.2 Plane and partially poirised light.

  • 7.5.3.3 Malus law.

  • 7.5.3.4 Uses of polroids.

  • 7.5.4 Polarisation by reflection.

  • 7.5.4.1 Brewster's law.

  • 7.5.4.2 Pile of plates.

  • 7.6 Optical instruments.

  • 7.6.1 Simple microscope.

  • 7.6.1.1 Near Point focusing.

  • 7.6.1.2 Normal focusing.

  • 7.6.1.3 Resolving Power of Microscope.

  • 7.6.1.4 Resolving Power of Telescope.

  • 7.6.2 Compound microscope.

  • 7.6.3 Astronomical telescope.

  • 7.6.3.1 Magnification in astronomical telescope.

  • 7.6.5 Reflecting telescope.

  • 7.6.7.3 Astigmatism.

Unit 8: Dual nature of radiation and mater

  • 8.1 Introduction.

  • 8.1.1 Electron Emission.

  • 8.2 Photo Electric Effect.

  • 8.2.1 HERTZ, Hallwach and Lenards's Observation.

  • 8.2.2 Effect of intensity of incident Light on Photo Electric current.

  • 8.2.3 Effect of Potential Difference on Photo Electric current.

  • 8.2.4 Effect of Frequency on Incident Light on stopping potential.

  • 8.2.5 Laws of Photo Electric current.

  • 8.2.6 Concept of Quantization of Energy.

  • 8.2.7 Particle Nature of light - Einstein Explanation.

  • 8.2.8 Photo Electric cells and their Applications.

  • 8.3 Matter waves.

  • 8.3.1 Introduction wave Nature of Particles.

  • 8.3.2 De - Broglie wavelength.

  • 8.3.3 De Broglie wavelength of electron.

  • 8.3.4 Davisson - Germer Experiment.

  • 8.3.5 Electron Microscope.

  • 8.4 X - ray Spectra Continuous X Ray Spectra, Characteristic X Ray Spectra.

Unit 9: Atomic and Nuclear Physics

  • 9.1 Introduction.

  • 9.2 Electric Discharge Through Gases Properties of Cathode Rays.

  • 9.2.1 Determination of Specific Charge (e/m) of electron - Thomson’s experiment.

  • 9.2.2 Determination of charge of electron -Millikan's Oil Drop Experiment.

  • 9.3.2 Ruther ford Model.

  • 9.3.3 Bohr atom model.

  • 9.3.4 Atomic Structure.

  • 9.4.3 Atomic and Nuclear masses.

  • 9.4.4 Size and density of Nucleus.

  • 9.4.5 Mass Defects and Binding energy.

  • 9.4.6 Binding Energy.

  • 9.5 Nuclear Force.

  • 9.6.1 Alpha decay.

  • 9.6.2 Beta Decay.

  • 9.6.3 Gamma Emission.

  • 9.6.4 Laws of Radioactivity.

  • 9.6.5 Half Life, Mean life.

  • 9.6.6 Carbon dating.

  • 9.7 Nuclear fission.

  • 9.8 Nuclear fusion.

Unit 10: Electronics and communication systems

  • 10.1 Introduction.

  • 10.1.1 Energy Band Diagram.

  • 10.1.2 Classification of materials.

  • 10.2 Types of Semi-conductors.

  • 10.2.1 Intrinsic Semiconductor.

  • 10.2.2 Extrinsic Semi-conductor.

  • 10.3.1 PN Junction Formation.

  • 10.3.2 PN Junction Diode.

  • 10.3.4 Rectification.

  • 10.3.5 Breakdown Mechanism.

  • 10.3.6 Zener Diode.

  • 10.4 The Bipolar Junction transistor.

  • 10.4.1 Transistor circuit Configuration.

  • 10.4.2 Transistor action in CB mode.

  • 10.4.3 Relation between a and l3.

  • 10.4.4 Operating point.

  • 10.4.5 Transistor as a switch.

  • 10.5 Digital Electronics.

  • 10.5.1 Analog and digital signal.

  • 10.6 Boolean Algebra.

  • 10.7 De Morgan’s Theorem.

  • 10.7.1 De Morgan’s 1st Theorem.

  • 10.7.2 De Morgan’s 2nd Theorem.

  • 10.7.3 Integrated chips.

  • 10.8 Communication System.

  • 10.9 Modulation.

  • 10.9.1 Amplitude modulation.

  • 10.9.2 Frequency modulation.

  • 10.9.3 Phase modulation.

Unit 11: Recent Developments in Physics

  • 11.1 Introduction.

  • 11.2 Nano science and Nano technology.

  • 11.2.1 Nano Science.

  • 11.2.2 Interdisciplinary nature of Nano Technology.

  • 11.2.3 Nano in nature.

  • 11.3 Robotics.

  • 11.3.1 What is Robotics ?

  • 11.3.2 Components of robotics.

  • 11.3.3 Types of Robotics.

PHYSICS - PRACTICAL

  • Exp 1: Determine the value of the Horizontal component of the earth magnetic field using tangent galvanometer. Take at least four readings.

  • Exp 2: Compare the EMF of two cells using potentiometer.

  • Exp 3: Adjust the grating for normal incidence using the spectrometer. Determine the wavelength of green, blue, yellow and red lines of mercury spectrum (the number of lines per meter length of the grating can be noted from the grating).

  • Exp 4: Voltage - Current characteristics of a PN junction diode.

  • Exp 5: Verification of truth tables of logic gates using integrated circuits.

  • Exp 6: Verification of De Morgan’s Theorems.

CHEMISTRY

Unit 1: Metallurgy

  • Introduction.

  • 1.1 Occurrence of metals.

  • 1.1.1 Mineral and ore.

  • 1.2 Concentration of ores.

  • 1.2.1 Gravity separation or Hydraulic wash.

  • 1.2.2 Froth flotation.

  • 1.2.3 Leaching - Cyanide leaching, Recovery of metal of interest from the complex by reduction, Ammonia leaching, Alkali leaching, Acid leaching.

  • 1.2.4 Magnetic separation.

  • 1.3 Extraction of crude metal.

  • 1.3.1 Conversion of ores into oxides - Roasting and Calcination.

  • 1.3.2 Reduction of metal oxides - Smelting.

  • 1.3.2 Reduction by carbon: Reduction by hydrogen, Reduction by metal: Auto-reduction:

  • 1.6 Refining process.

  • 1.6.1 Distillation.

  • 1.6.2 Liquation.

  • 1.6.3 Electrolytic refining

  • 1.6.4 Zone Refining.

  • 1.6.5 Vapor phase method - Mond process for refining nickel, Van-Arkell method for refining Zirconium/ Titanium.

Unit 2: P-Block Elements - I

  • Introduction.

  • 2.1 General trends in properties of P-Block elements.

  • 2.1.1 Electronic configuration and oxidation state.

  • 2.1.2 Metallic nature.

  • 2.1.3 Ionisation Enthalpy.

  • 2.1.4 Electronegativity.

  • 2.1.5 Anomalous properties of the first elements.

  • 2.1.6 Inert pair effect.

  • 2.1.7 Allotropism in p-block elements.

  • 2.2 Group 13 (Boron group) elements.

  • 2.2.1 Occurrence.

  • 2.2.2 Physical properties.

  • 2.2.3 Chemical properties of boron, Uses of boron.

  • 2.2.4 Borax [Na2B407.10H20] - Preparation, Properties, Uses of Borax.

  • 2.2.5 Boric acid (H3B03 or B(OH)3] - Preparation, Properties, Structure of Boric acid, Uses of boric acid.

  • 2.2.9 Alums - Preparation Properties of Alum, Uses of Alum.

  • 2.3 Group 14 (Carbon group) elements:

  • 2.3.1 Occurrence.

  • 2.3.2 Physical properties.

  • 2.3.3 Tendency for catenation.

  • 2.3.4 Allotropes of Carbon, Graphite, Diamond, Fullerenes Graphene.

  • 2.3.8 Silicones - Preparation, Types of silicones, Properties, Uses.

Unit 3: P-Block Element - II

  • Introduction.

  • 3.1 Group 15 (Nitrogen group)-elements.

  • 3.1.1 Occurrence.

  • 3.1.2 Physical properties.

  • 3.1.3 Nitrogen - Preparation, Properties of Nitrogen, Uses of nitrogen.

  • 3.1.4 Ammonia (NH3) - Preparation, Properties of Ammonia, Chemical Properties, Structure of ammonia.

  • 3.1.7 Allotropic forms of phosphorus.

  • 3.1.8 Properties of phosphorus - Uses of phosphorus, Oxoacids of Phosphorus-Structure, Group 16 (Oxygen group) elements Occurrence, Physical properties.

  • 3.2 Oxygen - Preparation, Properties, Chemical properties, Uses of Oxygen.

  • 3.2.1 Allotropic forms of Sulphur

  • 3.2.2 Sulphur dioxide Preparation - Properties Uses of Sulphur dioxide, Structure of Sulphur dioxide, Structure of oxoacids of Sulphur.

  • 3.3 Group 17 (Halogen group) elements.

  • 3.3.1 Chlorine - Occurrence, Physical properties of Chlorine.

  • 3.3.1 Manufacture of chlorine Physical properties Chemical properties Uses of chlorine

  • 3.3.4 Inter halogen compounds - Properties of inter halogen compounds, Structure of inter halogen compounds.

  • 3.4 Group 18 (Inert gases) elements.

  • 3.4.1 Occurrence - Physical properties-Inert Gases, Physical properties Properties of inert, Gases Chemical Properties, Uses of noble gases.

Unit 4: Transition and inner transition elements

  • Introduction.

  • 4.1 Position of d- block elements in the periodic table.

  • 4.2 Electronic configuration.

  • 4.3 General trend in properties.

  • 4.3.1 Metallic behavior.

  • 4.3.2 Variation of atomic and ionic size.

  • 4.3.3 Ionization enthalpy.

  • 4.3.4 Oxidation state.

  • 4.3.5 Standard electrode potentials of transition metals.

  • 4.3.6 Magnetic properties.

  • 4.3.7 Catalytic properties.

  • 4.3.8 Alloy formation.

  • 4.3.9 Formation of interstitial compounds.

  • 4.3.10 Formation of complexes.

  • F-Block elements - Inner transition elements The position of Lanthanoids in the periodic table, Electronic configuration of Lanthanoids Oxidation state of lanthanoids, Atomic and ionic radii

  • Causes of lanthanoid contraction, Consequences of lanthanoid contraction, Actinoids: Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr, Electronic configuration of actinoids Oxidation state of actinoids, Differences between lanthanoids and actinoids.

Unit 5: Coordination Chemistry

  • Introduction

  • 5.1 Coordination compounds and double salts.

  • 5.2 Werner's theory of coordination compounds Postulates Werner's theory.

  • 5.2.1 Limitations of Werner's theory.

  • 5.3 Definition of important terms pertaining to co-ordination compounds.

  • 5.3.1 Coordination entity.

  • 5.3.2 Central atom/ion.

  • 5.3.3 Ligands - Coordination sphere, Coordination polyhedron, Coordination number, Oxidation state (number),Types of complexes, Classification based on the net charge on the complex, Classification based on kind of ligands.

  • 5.4 Nomenclature of coordination compounds. - a. Naming the ligands, b.Naming the central metal, More examples with names - IUPAC Nomenclature

  • 5.6 Theories of coordination compound.

  • 5.6.1 Valence Bond Theory - Main assumptions of VBT, Illustration(1 -4), Limitations of VBT.

Unit 6: Solid State

  • 6.1. Introduction General Characteristics of Solids.

  • 6.2. Classification of Solids.

  • 6.3. Classification of Crystalline Solids 6.3.1 .Ionic solids.

  • 6.3.2. Covalent Solids.

  • 6.3.3. Molecular Solids.

  • 6.3.4. Metallic Solids.

  • 6.4 Crystal lattice and unit cell.

  • 6.5 Primitive and Non Primitive unit

  • 6.5.1 Primitive (or) Simple Cube unit cell 6.5.2 Body Centered cubic unit cell 6.5.3 Face centered cubic unit cell.

  • 6.5.4 Calculations involving unit cell Dimensions 6.5.5 Calculation of density

  • 6.6 Packing in Crystals.

  • 6.6.1 Linear arrangement of spheres in one direction.

  • 6.6.2 Two dimensional Close Packing 6.6.3 Simple Cubic arrangement.

  • 6.6.4. Body Centered Cubic arrangement 6.7. Imperfections in solids.

  • 6.7.1 Schottky defect.

  • 6.7.2. Frenkel defect.

  • 6.7.3. Metal Excess defect.

  • 6.7.4. Metal Deficiency defect.

  • 6.7.5. Impurity defect.

Unit 7: Chemicals Kinetics.

  • 7. Introduction & Rate of Chemical reaction.

  • 7.1.1 Stoichiometry and rate of reaction.

  • 7.1.2 Average and instantaneous rate.

  • 7.3 Rate law and Rate Constant.

  • 7.4 Molecularity.

  • 7.5 Integrated Rate Equation.

  • 7.5.1 Integrated rate law for First order.

  • 7.5.2 Integrated rate law for a Zero order reaction.

  • 7.6 Half life period of a reaction.

Unit 8: Ionic Equilibrium

  • 8.1. Acids and bases.

  • 8.1.1 Arrhenius concept.

  • 8.1.2 Lowry - Bronsted theory.

  • 8.1.3 Lewis Concept.

  • 8.2 Strength Of Acids and Bases.

  • 8.3 Ionisation of water.

  • 8.4 The pH Scale.

  • 8.4.1 Relation between pH and pOH.

  • 8.5 lonistion of Weak Acids.

  • 8.5.1 Ostwald's Dilution Law.

  • 8.6 Common ion effect.

  • 8.7 Buffer Solution.

  • 8.7.1 Buffer Action.

  • 8.7.3 Henderson Hassel Balch Equation.

  • 8.9 Solubility Product.

  • 8.9.1 Determination of solubility Product from Molar Solubility.

Unit 9: Electro Chemistry

  • 9.1Conductivity of electrolytic solution.

  • 9.1.1 Molar conductivity.

  • 9.1.2 Equivalent conductance.

  • 9.1.3 Factors affecting Electrolytic conductance.

  • 9.1.4 Measurement of conductivity of ionic solutions.

  • 9.2 Variation of molar conductivity with concentration.

  • 9.2.2 Kohlrausch's law and Applications.

  • 9.3.2 Galvanic cell notation.

  • 9.3.4 Measurement of electrode potential.

  • 9.4 Thermodynamics of cell reactions

  • 9.4.1 Nernst equation - Electrolytic cell and Electrolysis Faraday's law of electrolysis First law, Second law, Electrochemical series.

Unit 10: Surface Chemistry

  • 10.1 Adsorption and Absorption Characteristics of adsorption.

  • 10.1.1 Types of Adsorption - Physical and Chemical Adsorption.

  • 10.1.2 Factors affecting Adsorption.

  • 10.1.3 Adsorption isotherms and isobars.

  • 10.1.3.1 Freundlich adsorption isotherm and limitations.

  • 10.2 Catalysis Positive and Negative Catalysis.

  • 10.2.1 Characteristics of Catalysis - Promoters and Catalytic poison Auto Catalysis, Negative Catalysis.

  • 10.2.2 Theories of Catalysis- The Intermediate compound formation theory, Adsorption Theory & Active Centers.

  • 10.5 Colloid, dispersion Phase and dispersion medium.

  • 10.5.1 Classification of colloidal solution.

  • 10.5.2 Preparation of Colloids.

(1)Dispersion methods [mechanical dispersion, electro dispersion, ultrasonic dispersion, peptisation]

(2)Condensation method. [oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, double decomposition, Decomposition]

(3)By exchange of solvent.

  • 10.5.3 Purification of colloids

(i) Dialysis.

(ii)Electrodialysis.

(iii)Ultrafiltration.

  • 10.5.4 Properties of colloids 14 points [ Colour, Size, Heterogeneous nature, Filterability, Non- Setting nature, Concentration & density, Diffusability, Colligative Properties, Shape of Colloidal Particles, Optical, Kinetic and Electrical properties, Coagulation, Protective action]

Unit 11: Hydroxy compounds and ethers.

  • 11.1 Introduction Classification of Alcohols.

  • 11.2 IUPAC Nomenclature - Physical Properties of Alcohols, Preparation of Alcohols Methods to differentiate primary, secondary, Tertiary Chemical Properties of Alcohols (without mechanism)

  • Uses of Alcohols, Acidity of alcohols.

  • Acidity of phenols, Preparation of phenol, Physical Properties of Phenol, Chemical properties of phenols.

  • Test to differentiate Alcohols & Phenols Uses of phenol.

  • ETHERS - Ethers Classification IUPAC System Structure of functional group, Preparation of Ethers except mechanism Physical properties uses, Chemical Properties of Ethers (except mechanism)

Unit 12: Carbonyl compounds and carboxylic acids

  • 12.1 Nomenclature of Aldehyde and Ketones.

  • 12.2 Structure of carbonyl group.

  • 12.3 General methods of preparation of Aldehydes and Ketones.

  • 12.4 Physical properties of Aldehydes and Ketones.

  • 12.5 chemical properties of Aldehydes and Ketones. (Mechanism only for aldol and Cannizzaro reaction)

  • 12.6 Test for Aldehydes (First two test only) CARBOXYLIC ACIDS.

  • 12.8 Nomenclature of carboxylic acids 12.9 structure of carboxyl group.

  • 12.10 Methods of preparation of carboxylic acids except Sno 5.

  • 12.11 Physical properties of carboxylic acids 12.12 Chemical properties of carboxylic acids Test for carboxylic acid.(except mechanism of esterification)

  • 12.13 Acidity of carboxylic acids.

Unit 13: Organic Nitrogen Compounds

  • Introduction to Nitro Compounds.

  • 13.1 Classification of Nitro compounds.

  • 13.1.2 Nomenclature.

  • 13.1.3 Isomerism.

  • 13.1.4 Acidic Nature of Nitro Alkanes.

  • 13.1.5 Preparation of Nitro Alkane first 3 methods only.

  • 13.1.6 Preparation of Nitro Arenes first method only.

  • 13.1.7 Physical Properties of Nitro Alkanes

  • 3.1.8 Electrophilic Substitution Reaction Chemical properties of Nitro Alkanes.

  • 13.2 Amines - Classification.

  • 13.2.1 Nomenclature IUPAC system of Amines.

  • 3.2.2 Structure of Amines.

  • 13.2.3 General Methods of Preparation of Amines.

  • 13.2.4 Physical properties of amines.

  • 13.2.5 Expression for basic strength of Amines.

  • 13.2.6 chemical properties of Amines.

Unit 14: Bio Molecules

  • 14.1 Carbohydrate Introduction.

  • 14.1.2 classification of carbohydrate.

  • 14.1.3 Glucose,preparation structure.

  • 14.1.4 Fructose preparation and structure.

  • 14.1.5 Disaccharides.

  • 14.1.7 Importance of carbohydrates.

  • 14.2 Proteins.

  • 14.2.1 Amino acids.

  • 14.2.3 properties of Amino acids.

  • 14.2.4 peptide bond formation.

  • 14.5 Nucleic acids.

  • 14.5.1 Composition and structure of nucleic acid.

  • 14.5.3 Types of RNA molecules.

CHEMISTRY - PRACTICAL

Organic compounds

Exp1: Benzophenone.

Exp2: Cinnamic Acid.

Exp3: Urea.

Exp4: Glucose.

Exp5: Aniline.

Volumetric analysis

Exp1: Estimation of Ferrous Sulphate (Permanganometry)

Exp2: Estimation of FAS (Permanganometry)

Exp3: Estimation of Oxalic acid (Acid Base Titration)

BIOLOGY - PRACTICAL

Will be updated shortly.

COMPUTER SCIENCE

Unit 1: Function

  • 1.1 Introduction.

  • 1.2 Function with respect to Programming language.

Unit 2: Data Abstraction

  • 2.1 Data Abstraction - Introduction.

  • 2.2 Abstract Data Types.

  • 2.3 Constructors and Selectors.

Unit 3: Scoping

  • 3.1 Introduction.

  • 3.2 Variable Scope.

  • 3.3 LEGB rule.

  • 3.4 Types of Variable Scope.

Unit 4: Algorithmic Strategies

  • 4.1 Introduction to Algorithmic strategies.

  • 4.4 Algorithm for Searching Techniques.

  • 4.5 Sorting Techniques.

Unit 5: Python - Variables and Operators

  • 5.1 Introduction.

  • 5.2 Key features of Python.

  • 5.3 Programming in Python.

  • 5.4 Input and Output functions.

  • 5.5 Comments in Python.

  • 5.6 Indentation.

  • 5.7 Tokens.

Unit 6: Control Structures

  • 6.1 Introduction.

  • 6.2 Control structures.

Unit 7: Python Functions

  • 7.1 Introduction - Types of functions.

  • 7.2 Defining functions.

  • 7.3 Calling a function.

  • 7.4 Passing Parameters.

  • 7.6 Anonymous functions.

  • 7.7 Return Statement.

  • 7.8 Scope of Variables.

Unit 8: Strings and String Manipulations

  • 8.1 Introduction.

  • 8.2 Creating Strings.

  • 8.3 Accessing characters in a string.

  • 8.4 Modifying and Deleting String.

  • 8.5 String operators.

Unit 9: Lists, Tuples, Sets and Dictionaries

  • 9.1 Introduction To List.

  • 9.2 Tuples.

  • 9.3 Sets.

Unit 10: Python Classes and Objects

  • 10.1 Introduction To Classes and Objects.

  • 10.2 Defining Classes.

  • 10.3 Creating Objects.

  • 10.4 Accessing Class Index.

  • 10.5 Class Methods.

  • 10.6 Constructors and Destructors in Python.

  • 10.7 Public and Private Members.

Unit 11: Database Concepts

  • 11.1 Data

  • 11.2 Information

  • 11.3 Database

  • 11.4 DBMS Concepts

  • 11.5 Database Structure

Unit 12: Structured Query Language.

  • 12.1 Introduction To SQL.

  • 12.4 Creating Database.

  • 12.5 Components of SQL.

  • 12.7 SQL Commands and Functions.

Unit 13: Python and CSV Files

  • 13.1 Introduction.

  • 13.2 Difference between CSV and XLS file formats.

  • 13.3 Purpose Of CSV File.

  • 13.4 Creating a CSV file using Notepad. (or any text editor)

  • 13.6 Read and write a CSV file Using Python.

  • 13.6.1 Read a CSV File Using Python.

  • 13.7 Writing Data Into Different Types in CSV.

  • 13.7.1 Creating A New Normal CSV File.

  • 13.7.2 Modifying an Existing File.

  • 13.7.3 CSV Files With Quotes.

Unit:14 Importing C++ Programs in Python

  • 14.1 Introduction.

  • 14.2 Scripting Language.

  • 14.3 Applications of Scripting Languages.

  • 14.5 Importing C++ Files in Python.

  • 14.6 Python Program to import C++.

Unit:15 Data Manipulation through SQL

  • 15.1 Introduction.

  • 15.2 SQLite.

  • 15.3 Creating a Database using SQLite.

  • 15.4 SQL Query Using Python.

  • 15.4.1 SELECT Query.

  • 15.6 Querying A Date Column.

  • 15.7 Aggregate Functions.

  • 15.8 Updating A Record.

  • 15.9 Deletion Operation.

Unit 16: Data Visualization using Pyplot

  • 16.1 Data Visualization Definition.

  • 16.2 Getting Started.

  • 16.3 Special Plot Types.

COMPUTER - PRACTICAL

Lab 1: PY1(a) Calculate Factorial PY1(b) Sum of Series.

Lab 2: PY2(a) Odd or Even PY2(b)Reverse the String.

Lab 3: PY3 Generate values and remove odd numbers.

Lab 4: PY4 Generate Prime numbers and Set Operations.

Lab 5: PY5 Display a String elements - Using Class.